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There are many terms used in the printing world that are not part of everyday vocabulary. This Glossary of Printing Terms has been developed as a resource to ensure we’re all speaking the same language. If you can’t find a word you’re looking for, please contact our desktop helpline at (507) 775-7315 or (507) 775-7358.

1-9

1 Bit Graphics:
An electronic image made up of pixels that are either on or off, white or black, with no variations of gray.
10X glass (line tester):
A folding magnifying glass that enlarges images by a magnification factor of 10.
22X glass (peak or loupe glass):
A magnifying glass that enlarges images by a magnification factor of 22.
24-Bit Image File:
An image composed of three 8-bit channels of color – typically red, green and blue (RGB) – in order to create a full color image; 8 Bits x 3 colors = 24-Bit image.
32-Bit Image File:
An image composed of four 8-bit channels of color – typically cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) – in order to create a full color image; 8 Bits x 4 colors = 32-Bit image.
8-Bit Graphics:
An electronic image made up of pixels that in turn are made up of 16 x 16 grids or halftone cells. Each square within this grid can be either black or white and dependent upon how these two colors are used, this creates an illusion of gray for that pixel. Each 16 x 16 grid is capable of creating 256 different levels of gray when defining the image.

A

AA (author alteration):
Corrections made at proofing that are not caused by printer error.
Absolute Colorimetric Rendering Intent:
A rendering intent that determines how a file’s color values will be remapped from the current color space into the target color space; in this case any color that is not outside of the target color space (usually that of an output device) is remapped to an exact match; however, out-of-gamut colors are moved to the nearest edge of the target color space, which means they will be clipped. All colors, including white, will be remapped relative to the white point of the current color space.
Accordion Fold:
A binding term for two or more parallel folds that open like an accordion. Brochures and maps often use accordion folds.
ACR:
Acronym for Address Correction Requested.
Additive Color Model:
Refers to the three primary colors of light; red, green, and blue. They are called “additive” colors because their way of producing color involves light waves that are added together at varying strengths to produce the colors we see on monitors and TVs.
Aliasing:
A pixelated or stair-step appearance that can occur when printing a low resolution image (i.e. below 200 pixels per inch) or outputting a file and/or image on a low-resolution device.
AM Screening: 
A method of screening used in printing whereby tonal values are determined by the size of the of printing dots (“amplitude modulation”); the frequency of the dots does not change. This method of screening is used to produced halftone screens, which consist of a certain number of rows of dots for each color.
Apparent Dot Area (ADA):
The dot area of a printed halftone, which is measured and defined by a densitometer on a percentage scale of 0 – 100% (solid). The reason it is called “apparent” dot area is due to the measurement corresponding to how the human eye perceives the dot size. Dot area is typically determined by taking a measurement from a screened one-color patch (i.e. 50% cyan) on a press sheet’s color bar. It is a comparative measurement that is derived by comparing a screened patch to its corresponding solid patch (i.e. 50% cyan patch to a solid cyan patch).
Application Color Settings: 
Typically accessed via a dialog box within which you configure how the application will carry out its color management capabilities, including its default profiles and color conversion routines. These settings tell the application how you want it to manage color when opening any document as well as importing images and art files into it.
Artwork:
All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing.
Ascender:
The portion of a lower case letter that extends above the body of the letter; such as b, d, f, etc.
ASCII:
A file encoded in the industry-standard representation for text, ASCII (acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange; pronounced “ask-e”). An ASCII file contains only plain text and basic text formatting. The ASCII character set of a microcomputer usually includes 256 characters or control codes. The most consistent ASCII characters are those that can be seen on the keyboard; they fall in the range from ASCII 32 to 127 and are called “plain ASCII.” Any computer can read plain ASCII.
Assigning a Profile: 
Terminology particular to Adobe applications (InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator) which refers to applying a profile to a document or imported image. It is possible to assign a profile regardless of whether or not the document or imported image already has a profile associated with it (also referred to as being “tagged” or having an “embedded” profile).
Assumed Profile: 
Terminology particular to Adobe applications (InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator) which refers to applying a profile to a document or imported image that does not have a profile associated with it (also referred to as being “untagged”). Assuming a profile employs the default profile, as configured in the application’s color settings, as the “source profile” when converting an image or document from one color space to another (i.e RGB to CMYK).
ATM (Adobe Type Manager):
A software that performs the process of scaling Type 1 fonts to the requested size.

B

Banding:
A visible stair-stepping of shades in a gradient or blend, rather than a smooth transition from one color or tonal range to another.
Barcode:
A series of varied length vertical bars used to determine zip code.
Baseline:
In composition, the line on which the bottoms of letters rest, exclusive of descenders that fall below the baseline.
Binder:
An adhesive component of paper designed to hold the paper together.
Bind-in:
Includes any insert that is bound into a publication.
Binding Ear:
A narrow (usually 3″ to 4″) extension of a saddle stitch insert necessary for the actual stitching process. It allows the insert to straddle the gathering mechanism for stitching.
Binding Lap:
An extension (usually 1/4″ to 1/2″) on a 4-page saddle stitched insert that allows it to be mechanically opened during binding. There are two kinds of laps, see high folio lap and low folio lap.
Binding Stub:
Portion of an insert card (usually 1/4″ or 1/2″) that fastens into a perfect bound publication. It is the distance from the spine to a vertical perforation on the bind-in.
Bit:
Abbreviation for binary digit. The smallest unit of information in a binary system, a bit is the fundamental unit of information used in computers. A bit element is a “1” signaling On or a “0” signaling Off in a data string. Most computers work with 8-bit strings called bytes.
Bitmap:
A computerized image made up of pixels. While satisfactory for pixel-based screen displays, bitmap images give a jagged appearance on paper or film if their resolution – pixels per inch (PPI) – is not high enough. Generally, digital photos or scans require a resolution of 300 PPI while line art requires 800 PPI for high quality reproduction on press.
Black Generation:
Method in which the black channel is created when converting from RGB to CMYK (also referred to as color separations) or from CMYK to CMYK (re-separating a color image that had already been converted into CMYK). Depending upon which method was employed, the black channel will either contain a light, medium or heavy amount of black used to make up the total amount of tonal values in the image.
Black Plate Change:
Changes made to the black plate only (usually codes and text) and thus do not affect the printed document’s color appearance.
Blanket:
A fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber used on offset presses to transfer the impression from the plate onto the paper.
Bleed:
Printed colors that run to the edge of a the paper. To accommodate the bleed, the printer must make the bleed image area larger than the final trim size. The page is trimmed through the bleed area.
Blind Folio:
Page numbers not printed on the page.
Blow-In:
Any loose insert that is not physically bound into a publication.
Brightness:
Also called value, one of the three attributes of color (the other two are hue and saturation). Brightness describes differences in the amount of light reflected from or transmitted through an image regardless of its hue and saturation. This can be a confusing word to use in directing color correction edits as it is used to indicate both the addition and subtraction of color. Correctly used, it refers to the amount of light that is apparent in an area. In terms of paper, brightness is the light reflectance or brilliance of the paper at a specific wavelength, often perceived as whiteness. Generally, the higher the brightness rating, the better quality the paper.
BRM (Business Reply Mail):
Postage paid reply cards.
Byte:
There are 8 bits in one byte; often referred to as the number of bits used to represent a character.

C

C:
Abbreviation for cyan in four-color process printing.
C1S (coated one side):
Paper with a coating of clay or other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout on one side only.
C2S (coated on two sides):
Paper coated on both sides.
Calibration:
Calibration involves adjusting a device—whether it be a monitor, scanner or printer—to perform at an agreed upon and known standard. It is mainly concerned with establishing correct white and black points while creating true neutrals to prevent the device from giving the displayed or printed image a color cast that was not already in the image. Devices should be calibrated periodically in order to consistently produce the same color and tonal values as defined in the device’s profile.
Card Stock:
Also called cover stock. A stiff paper often used for postcards, catalog covers and other items that require rigidity. Card stock is described by point sizes that give the thickness of the sheet in thousandths of inches.
CCD (Charge Coupled Device):
Common element in scanners that measures light reflected off or transmitted from the original.
CD ROM (Compact Disk – Read Only Memory):
An optical storage device used by computers to write\read electronic data.
CD:
Abbreviation for Compact Disc, which is an optical disk used to store data. It is “write-once” media, meaning it can only be written to once, after which it cannot be used for further data storage; it cannot even be erased.
CD-RW:
Abbreviation for Compact Disc–Rewritable, which is an optical disk used to store data. Unlike a CD, it can be written to more than once for further data storage.
Characters Per Inch (CPI):
The number of characters that fit within a linear inch in a particular font.
Chokes:
Used to provide a printing overlap between a color or tinted background in order to outline letters. The image remains the same except for a narrow reduction around its perimeter.
Chop:
Waste area for images that bleed off the edge of one card without interfering with the next card.
CIE:
Acronym for “Commission International d’Éclairage” (also known as International Commission on Illumination) The CIE is an international association of color scientists that beginning in 1931, have established several visual color models that have become the basis for all measurements taken with a colorimeter (an instrument for measuring color the way the eye sees color).
CMYK: 
Acronym for the four process color inks used in 4-color printing: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. The “K” in CMYK does not necessarily stand for black, but rather, for the “Key” plate. The Key plate is the plate that holds the detail for the printed image, and in 4-color printing this is usually done with black ink.
Coated Paper:
Paper coated with clay, white pigments and a binder.
Color Bars:
The color strip on plates that is used as a guide for the printer in determining the amount and density of ink needed.
Color Break:
In artwork and composition, a color break designates parts to be printed in different colors.
Color Cast:
An unwanted dominant color present in the original image or in its reproduction. Color casts are usually the result of lighting variance during photography or incorrect processing of captured image; they are also the result of improper employment of methods used for proofing and/or printing the image.
Color Correction:
In electronic pre-press, the process of adjusting an image to compensate for color casts due to image capture/processing inaccuracies or deficient characteristics of the output device and printing process.
Color Gamut:
A gamut is the range of color and tonal values that a particular device (monitor, proofer, scanner) or color reproduction system is capable of producing or capturing. It is formed by all combinations of a given set of light sources or colorants utilized by the device and the color reproduction system it resides in. Reflected light, ink impurities, and paper absorption, all serve to limit the color gamut of a conventionally printed image. Much of the work done in color correction arises from compression of the color gamut that occurs during preparation of images for printed output.
Color Management Module (CMM): 
A drop-in component that provides the “engine” for profile-to-profile conversions. It defines how colors are computed using the sample points in the profiles as guidelines. It may be chosen automatically as the destination profile’s “preferred” CMM, or selected by the user either at the time of conversion, or as a default setting in the operating  system or application.
Color Management System (CMS): 
Software dedicated to handling device-to-device conversion of colors. The ICC-based model for a CMS consists of four components: a  PCS, device profiles, a CMM, and a set of rendering intents.
Color Model: 
A system to identify and map out colors within a specific color gamut by assigning a set of three or more numerical values to each color it can represent within that gamut. There are various color models, like HSB (hue, saturation, brightness), LCH (luminance, chroma, hue), HSL (hue, saturation, lightness), etc. The three color models that are of particular interest to us in the graphic arts and printing industry are RGB (red, green, blue), CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black), and LAB (L defines lightness; A denotes the red/green value; and B the yellow/blue value).
Color Proof:
A visual representation of the expected final reproduction; produced on a substrate with inks, pigments or dyes.
Color Separations:
The process of separating full-color photographs, artwork, transparencies or electronic images into the four color components needed to create printing plates for the four process ink colors of black, cyan, magenta, and yellow.
Color Space: 
A color space is the conceptual representation of either a device or device-independent color gamut, and is defined by the color model employed in the measurement and numerical identification of the color and tonal values within that color gamut.  There is no such thing as “raw,” “straight” or “true” RGB or CMYK values for any device or image. There are many different kinds of RGB and CMYK color spaces – and each one refers to either a particular device (monitor, scanner, printer), press condition (press/paper combination; i.e. sheetfed/coated) or working space (i.e. Adobe RGB, Apple RGB, sRGB), and the color numbers (RGB values or CMYK percentages) in an image file will have a specific color meaning particular to the device, press condition or working space the color space represents. The communication of this color meaning within the production workflow is done by embedding a profile in the image and/or document which describes that color space. Even if the image file doesn’t have a embedded profile (referred to as an “untagged” image), its color meaning is not “generic,” but rather, simply unknown.
Colorant:
The pigment or color portion of ink, toner, proofing films or paper.
Committee for Graphic Arts Technologies Standards (CGATS):
The accredited standards development committee under ANSI responsible for graphic arts industry standards. The mission of CGATS is to have the entire scope of printing and publishing technologies represented in one national standardization and coordination effort, while respecting the established activities of existing accredited standards committees and industry standards developers. It is charged with the overall coordination of graphic arts standards activities and the development of graphic arts standards where no applicable standards developer is available.
Condensed Typeface:
A narrow version of a regular typeface; permits more characters in a given measure; about 60% of the width of standard characters.
Continuous Tone:
An image in which the subject has continuous shades of color or gray without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be reproduced in that form for printing, but must be screened to convert the image into dots that can be printed on any output device, including a press.
Contrast Range:
The amount of variance between highlights and shadows in an original or reproduction. Quantified as the difference between the brightest highlight and deepest shadow in an image.
Contrast:
Dictated by the difference of tonal gradation between lightest and darkest values within an image. If the difference in light to dark tonal values is small, the image will look flat. If the difference is great, the image will look more dynamic. Image contrast is sacrificed somewhat when tonal values are compressed by an original’s total ink density being brought down to a range that can be reproduced on a printing press. Contrast is also compressed when an image is converted from a larger color space into a smaller one, which generally happens when converting from RGB to CMYK.
Converting Colors: 
Converting colors in an image from one color space to another (i.e. RGB to CMYK) always takes two profiles, a source and destination profile. The Source Profile tells the CMS what the actual colors the document contains. The source profile may be already embedded in the document, applied by the user (via assigning or converting) or supplied by a default setting (via assuming) in the operating system or application. The destination profile tells the CMS what new set of color values is required to reproduce those actual colors (as defined in the source profile) on the destination device. This may be selected by the user at the time of conversion (via choosing a printer profile at the time you print), or selected by a default setting (via assuming) in the operating system or application.
Copy Dot:
To photograph dot for dot in order to exactly match previously screened originals.
Coupon:
Designated area of a return card used for respondent information; e.g. name, address, etc.
Cover Wraps:
Any piece that is used to cover the front and back of a publication, also called an overwrap.
Crop Mark:
Symbols placed in the margin outside the image area that indicate an area to be printed and/or trimmed from the image.
Crop:
The elimination of parts of a photograph or artwork that are not required to be printed. Cropping allows the remaining parts of the image to be enlarged to fill the space.
Cutoff:
The length of the printed sheet off press, based on either the full circumference or 1/2 of the circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press.
Cyan (C):
One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process color printing.

D

Data Compression:
The storing of a computer file into a format that uses less disk space. Compressed files must be decompressed to be used.
Densitometer:
Used to measure and control the density of ink colors on the substratate.
Density:
1) The degree of darkness of a photographic image. The darker a tone, the higher its density. 2) The thickness of a layer of printed ink. 3) The ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it. 4) The tightness or looseness of paper fibers.
Descender:
The portion of a lower case letter that extends below the main body, such as g, j, p, q, and y.
Desktop Publishing (DTP):
The process of creating fully composed pages using a computer, off-the-shelf graphics software and an output device such as a laser printer.
Destination Profile:
One of the two types of profiles required for converting an image or document from one color space to another. The destination profile communicates to the CMS the color values required to reproduce the color appearance of the original (as defined by the source profile) on the destination device (which can be any kind of output device). This may be selected by the user at the time of conversion (i.e. choosing a printer profile at the time you print), or automatically selected as a default setting (via assuming) in the application.
Device Profile: 
A profile that describes the color space of a device in terms of its dynamic range (the color and brightness of the white and black point, and the difference between the two), its gamut (the color and brightness of its colorants or display), and its tonal-reproduction characteristics.
Device-Independent Profiles:
Otherwise known as a Color Space Profiles, they describe device-independent (not representing any devices) color spaces such as CIE LAB, CIE XYZ or some sort of RGB color space such as sRGB, Adobe RGB, ColorMatch RGB, and Apple RGB.
Die Cutting:
The process of using sharp steel dies to cut special shapes from printed sheets either on flatbed or rotary presses.
Die:
A device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing or debossing.
Dingbats:
Typographical ornaments such as bullets, arrows and check marks, used for design emphasis within text.
Dithering:
Dithering refers to the technique of altering the color values of adjacent dots or pixels to give the illusion of intermediate colors; for example, a printed field of alternating cyan and yellow dots appears to be green. Dithering can give the effect of shades of gray on a black-and white-display or the effect of more colors on a color display.
Dot Area:
The dot area is indicated by a percentage from zero to one hundred percent.
Dot Gain:
An inherent characteristic of the printing process in which dots are enlarged, resulting in darker or stronger colors. Dot gain can be compensated for during film preparation or by using coated stock and heatset printing because the ink dries before it soaks into the paper.
Dot:
1) Variable-sized spots found on film to which create the illusion of multiple colors or shades from one single color. 2) The individual element of a halftone.
Dots Per Inch (DPI):
A unit of measure for the output resolution of a printing device (i.e. laser or inkjet printer), the DPI refers to the number of dots that print within an inch. DPI is often used – incorrectly – to refer to the resolution of a scanner or digital images obtained by scanning or a digital camera. But in these cases there isn’t any printed dots to consider, but rather, the act of digitizing a photo or original artwork and the resulting electronic image that exists in the form of pixels. The resolution of an electronic image is referred to as PPI (pixels per inch), which has no influence on the DPI of an output device, though it will effect how sharp the image will print on any given device.
Drawing Program:
A type of graphics program that creates images using vectors (line and curve segments) rather than a grid of individual pixels.
Drilling:
The process of creating holes in a printed piece that will permit the insertion over rings or posts in a binder or in the case of a hole for hanging a calendar.
Duotone:
A duotone is a monochrome original, such as a black and white photograph, that is printed with one or more inks, usually black plus a spot color. Depending on how many colors are used to print the photo, they can also be referred to as tritones (3 colors), and quadtones (4 colors).
Dynamic Range:
A scanner’s ability to capture an image’s tonal range, from the lightest highlight to the darkest shadow.

E

Electronic Page Assembly:
Digital page layout files that commonly contain text and graphics. Created on a desktop publishing system, they are a  replacement for conventional paste-up boards.
Electronic Prepress (EP):
Computerized workflow that is configured to process electronic files for commercial printing.
Electronic Publishing:
A generic term for the distribution of information that is stored, transmitted and reproduced electronically.
Electrophotography 
A printing method that uses the principles of electricity and electrically-charged particles to create images. In photocopiers and laser printers, electric charges create the image on an electrophotographic surface that works as a printing plate. This surface is cleared after each image or copy is made, and is used over again for the next copy. Printing devices that employ this method are referred to as electrophotostatic.
Elliptical Dot:
In halftone photography, elongated dots that give improved gradation of tones, particularly middletones; also called Chain Dot.
Em Dash 
A hyphen equal to the width of the lower case letter “m”. Likewise, En Dash, is a hyphen of the lower case “n”. Used in typography and typesetting.
Em Space 
A lateral space equal to the width of the lower case letter “m”. Likewise, En Space, is the space of the lower case “n”. Used in typography and typesetting.
Embedding profiles: 
To save a profile within an image/document file. The profile will then be used as the starting point when converting the color values in the file into any other color space.
Emboss/Embossing:
To press an image into paper so it is raised above the surface.
Emulsion:
A light-sensitive pigment coating on film, plates and color key proofs.
Enamel:
A type of coated paper or the coating material on a paper.
Exact Reprint:
The files of a previous job are used again to print a piece.

F

Face Trim:
Area that is trimmed off the front (open) edge of the piece during the binding process.
Facing Pages:
Two pages that face each other when a publication is open.
Fifth Color:
A non-process or premixed ink color (commonly referred to as a PMS color) used in addition to the four-color process.
File Format:
A set of instructions that describe how to store, access, or transmit digital information. Some examples of file formats are: EPS, TIFF, PICT, DCS, JPEG.
FIM (Facing Identification Mark):
Any one of four patterns of vertical lines on the address side of a reply card used to classify and sort types of mail.
Final Trim Size:
The finished size of a bound magazine.
Finishing :
Any post-press operation, such as folding and cutting.
Flatbed Scanner:
Used to digitize photos and original artwork for import into various types of electronic documents.
Fluorescence:
The ability of a substance, such as paper or ink, to absorb ultraviolet light waves and reflect them as visible light.
Flush:
Aligned vertically on the left or right side of a page (flush left or flush right).
FM Screening: 
A method of screening used in printing whereby tonal values are determined by the frequency of the printing dots. This method of screening is called stochastic.
Foil Stamp:
Pressing a heated die onto a sheet of foil, releasing the foil from its backing and adhering it to a substrate.
Fold Marks:
Markings that show where a piece will fold when finished.
Folding Sample:
A proof or mock up that shows how an item folds.
Folio:
The page number.
Font:
A complete set of characters and symbols in one typographic design.
Foot Trim:
Area that is trimmed off at the bottom of the piece during the binding process.
Foot:
The bottom of a card, page or book.
Form:
1) The assembly of pages on a printed sheet. When folded, the form is called a signature. 2) A precise card layout which allows cards to be printed and collated in a designated order.
Four-Color Process: 
A printing method that uses the process ink colors of magenta, cyan, yellow and black to simulate the colors in a continuous tone color image.
FPO (For Position Only):
Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanicals to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction.

G

Gamma:
1) A measure of contrast in photographic images. 2) In electronic color correction, the difference in the status of the color curves. The color curve represents highlight to shadow values between current values and corrected values. Changing the color curve (making a gamma correction) increases or decreases the highlights, midtones and shadows relative to the original points on the curve.
Ganged / Ganging:
The grouping of two or more versions on a press sheet for greater efficiency.
Gate Fold:
An insert where one or two pages are bound into a publication so that one or more pages will fold out from the publication.
GIF:
An 8-bit computer file format by Compuserve. Capable of only supporting 256 colors or shades of grey at the most, GIF files are almost never used for professional printing.
Gigabyte:
An electronic unit of measurement equal to about 1,000 megabytes of data (or 1,000,000 bytes). Abbreviated GB.
Gloss:
A shiny coating on paper. Gloss coatings allow very little ink absorption, thus providing excellent color definition and contrast.
Gradation:
Variation in tonal values, from white to black.
Grain:
1) In paper making, the direction in which most wood pulp fibers lie within the sheet due to the direction of flow as the paper is made. Folding paper against the grain breaks more wood pulp fibers than folding with the grain, resulting in an uneven, less precise fold. 2) In film photography, the speckled appearance in prints or transparencies produced by clusters of silver particles in photographic emulsions. Frequently considered undesirable and apparent when an original is enlarged too much, grain can also be emphasized for special softening effects.
Graphic: 
A non-text item, illustration, photograph or artwork.
Gray Component Replacement (GCR):
GCR is one of two basic methods (the other is UCR: Under Color Removal) in which “black generation” is achieved, and thus determines how black is added to the mix of the other process colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) when performing color separations. GCR separations actually replace with black, in varying degrees, the amount of CMY that is not only used to make neutrals in the image, but also other colors that are much less than neutral. The degree to which black replaces the other three process inks is determined by how much black is introduced into the color separation method; a high amount of black is referred to as “heavy black generation” or ”heavy GCR” while a very reserved use of black is referred to as “light black generation” or “light GCR, ” and what exists between these two strategies is referred to “medium black generation” or “medium GCR.” The color separation strategy of “maximum black generation” (maximum GCR) utilizes black to replace all or almost all of the other three process colors, and should only be used in special situations where the image content would benefit from it being dominated by black ink while minimizing, if not negating the use of cyan, magenta and yellow.  There are two major benefits of utilizing GCR, especially medium and heavy GCR: 1) ink savings due the usage of less CMY ink by replacing these inks with K; 2) a higher degree of stability in holding color on press due to the fact that in using less CMY  there is less of a chance for color to shift during a press run, yet achieving the same color appearance had black not replaced CMY.
Grayscale:
A black and white image with shades of gray, such as a halftone.
Gripper Edge:
The leading edge of a sheet which is held by the grippers.
Gripper Margin:
The unprintable area of the paper where it is gripped as it passes through the press.
Gutter:
The inside margin from the printing edge to the binding area for publications.

H

Hairline Register:
Register within plus or minus one-half row of dots.
Hairline Rule:
The thinnest rule that can be printed. Not to be used for high-resolution output.
Halftone Dots:
The individual subdivisions of a printed surface created with a halftone screen.
Halftone:
A method for screening to simulate shades of gray. Darker tones are created with larger dots; lighter tones with smaller dots. This reproduction method contrasts with stochastic screening (same-size microdots) in a controlled random placement within a given area.
Hard Dot:
A halftone dot that has a hard, crisp edge without the fringe seen with the soft dot. The hard dot also has a fairly uniform density over its entire surface.
Hardcopy:
A printout, either low or high-resolution, accurately representing the electronic file.
Head Trim:
Area that is trimmed off at the top of a piece during the binding process.
Head:
The top of a card, page or book.
Hickey:
Spot on a printed sheet usually due to dust, lint or bits of paper.
High Folio Lap:
Lap appears on higher numbered pages of a four-page insert. Inserts with high folio laps usually jog to the head.
Highlight:
The lightest area of a photograph that has the smallest or fewest dots when made into a halftone.
Hone Off:
An image that is removed on press.
Horizontal Bars:
Printed bars under the indicia on a BRM card. Horizontal bars must be at least 1” wide and cannot go below the bottom of the second-to-bottom line in the address.
Horizontal Justification:
The ability to condense and expand character width any percentage value so right and left margins are flush.
HSV:
Abbreviation for Hue, Saturation, and Value; a color model used in some graphic design programs. Images in HSV must be translated to another model for color printing or for forming screen colors.
Hue Error:
Characterizes colorants used as process colors. Expressed as a percentage, hue error indicates the deviation from a theoretically perfect process hue. It does not, however, indicate any error or problem with the process links.
Hue:
The main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors. Hue is determined by the color’s dominant wavelength within the visible spectrum. Saturation and brightness are two other attributes of color.

I

ICC profile:
A file that characterizes the color properties of a device (scanners, digital cameras, monitors, printers, presses) or abstract color spaces (device-independent, meaning not representing any devices). Needs to contain enough information to let a color management system convert colors into or out of a specific color space.
Icon:
In electronic prepress, a graphic symbol usually representing a file, folder, disk or tool.
Image Limit (Image Area):
The maximum area in which an image can be printed.
Image:
Any area in which ink is to appear on a printed piece.
Imagesetter:
A general term used for devices that generate graphic art films from electronic data sources.
Imposition Software:
Software used to manipulate pages created in page layout programs into proper sequence and position for signatures.
Imposition:
In digital imaging, the positioning of pages on a signature so that after printing, folding, and cutting, all pages will appear in the proper sequence.
Impression:
The result of one cycle of a plate cylinder on a printing press.
Imprinting:
To print new copy on a previously printed sheet.
Indicia:
Imprinted designations used on mail pieces denoting the method of postage payment.
Inkjet:
A method of printing electronic documents and/or images using jets that squirt miniscule droplets of ink onto a variety of substrates.
Input Devices: 
Any device that is used to acquire or capture images (scanners, digital cameras, video cameras) and convert them into digital information that can be manipulated on the computer.
Input Profile: 
A profile for an input device such as a scanner, digital camera or monitor. Not to be confused with a source profile.
Insert(s):
A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication, card pack or other form of packaging.
Intensity:
The strength, degree or amount of ink.
Interleaves:
Extra blank pages inserted loosely into printed pieces.
Internal Reproof:
A correction made on a proof before it is sent to the customer.

J

Jog to the Foot:
All sections/inserts align to the bottom (foot) of the publication in the binding process.
Jog to the Head:
All sections/inserts align to the top (head) of the publication in the binding process.
JPEG:
Joint Photographic Experts Group. A common standard for compressing image data.
Justify:
The alignment of text along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between words and characters so each line of text starts or finishes at the same point.

K

K:
Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing.
Kelvin (K):
A thermometric scale used to measure light temperature. Kelvin temperatures describe lighting sources for viewing and analyzing color. A standard balanced light source, neutral in hue and with the brightness of midday sunlight, measures 5000K.
Kerning:
In typesetting, the process of subtracting space between characters so overall letter spacing appears even.
Kilobyte:
An electronic unit of measurement equal to 1,024 bytes. Kilobytes are abbreviated as “k”.
Knockout:
When type or line art is to be printed over a photograph or other variable color background, the best way to produce a consistent color is to first reverse the type or artwork out of the background and then drop in the desired color. The process is referred to as “knocking out”.

L

LAB Color Space: 
Unlike RGB and CMYK, there is only one LAB color space, and it is device-independent because a specific set of LAB numbers will mean the same thing (i.e. represents the same color) regardless of any device or application that uses it.  In theory, it is meant to be a perceptually uniform color space (there are some anomalies that make it less than perfect). L is the lightness value, a is the red-green opponency, and b is the blue-yellow opponency. L axis (0-100/white – black) represent the Luminosity of an image • when viewing the L channel in Photoshop, you’re seeing the grayscale values of the image a axis (-a to +a / -128 to +127) represents the green (-128) and red (+127) values of an image • when viewing the a channel in Photoshop, the darker shades are GREEN; lighter shades are RED b axis (-b to +b / -128 to +127) represents the blue (-128) and yellow (+127) values of an image • when viewing the b channel in Photoshop, the darker shades are blue; lighter shades are yellow • LAB is meant to represent the color space which contains all the colors that human beings can see • LAB is all encompassing – every color can be plotted and described in LAB • All ICC profiles exist in the LAB color space
Landscape:
Printed sheets were the width is greater than the height. Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which are printed ‘sideways’.
Layout /Mock Up:
A drawing that gives the general appearance of the finished piece and usually indicates the relationship between illustrations and copy.
Leading:
The distance between lines of type measured in points.
Letter Spacing:
Letter spacing in typography is the process of increasing or decreasing the space between letters. Typographers may modify the default spacing of a letter in a body of type to aid readability and copy fit, or for aesthetic effect,
Linen Tester:
A magnifying glass designed for checking the dot image of a halftone.
Lines Per Inch (LPI) 
Unit of measurement for resolution of halftone screens, referring to the number of lines per inch in screens produced to create halftones and four-color process images (for example, “printed at 150-line screen”). The more lines per inch, the finer the resolution, and thus the more detailed the printed image will be.
Lithography :
A generic term for any printing process in which the image area and non-image area exist on the same plane (plate) and are separated by chemical repulsion.
LLC:
Lower Left Corner
Local Area Network (LAN):
Interconnected computers that can share programs and data files as well as the use of peripheral devices such as printers or CD-ROM drives.
Lossless Compression:
Data compression methods that rearrange or re-code data in a more compact fashion without any loss of information.
Low Folio Lap:
Lap appears on the lower numbered pages of a four-page insert. Inserts with low folio laps usually jog to the foot.
LRC:
Lower Right Corner

M

M:
The abbreviation for magenta in four-color process printing.
Magenta (M):
One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process color printing.
Make Good:
The rerun of an ad or printed piece by a publisher or printer because of their error.
Make Ready:
Refers to the process in which a printing press is prepared for printing. Also called ‘set-up’, the process includes hanging plates, putting inks in the fountains and loading paper the working to match what the press is producing to a supplied proof (bringing it up to color).
Margin:
Non printing area of a page.
Marksheet:
All marks appearing on proofs that are necessary for Press Operators, Trimmers, and Steppers to properly align images, scores, perforations, folds, laps, ears and sizes on press.
Mark-Up:
The procedure of inserting file markers, field tags, and/or hypertext links in the text. Mark-up can be based on a standard markup language, such as the Automated Composition System of the Government Printing Office or the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). A useful markup language can also be unique to one organization or even to one file. The particular file marker and field tags used with a file are declared when in setting up a text indexer. Hypertext links do not have to be declared, because they are automatically indexed as searchable terms.
Match Print:
A laminated presentation of color for a printed piece. Used primarily when the printed piece requires four-color process printing.
Matte:
A coated paper with a non-shiny finish that inhibits ink from being absorbed by the paper.
Maximum Density:
The highest degree of darkness (light absorption of opacity) of a photographic image.
Mechanicals:
Paste-up boards that camera-ready artwork is mounted on. A second layer, often a sheet of acetate, contains the photographs or transparencies mounted in position. A sheet of tracing or other semitransparent paper is often attached and includes special information or instructions; for example, make this type blue or that logo red.
Megabyte (MB):
A unit of measurement equal to 1024 kilobytes, or 1,048,576 bytes.
Message Side:
Usually the advertising side of the card.
Metallic Inks:
Inks that contain metallic powders mixed with the ink base.
Mezzotint:
A patterned screen used to create the effect of a true mezzotint, which is a copper or steel engraving that creates the effects of light and shadow.
Midtone:
The tonal values of an image that fall midway between the highlight and shadow dots; around 50% coverage.
Moiré:
An undesirable optical pattern that happens when two or more grid patterns overlap, such as the halftone dots produced by an angled screen. A moiré pattern may also occur when there is a pattern in the artwork, such as a herringbone weave or window blinds, interferes with a halftone dot pattern. Manipulating artwork when scanned or using stochastic screening may eliminate the moiré.
Monotone:
Printed with a single color, black or any color.

N

Nanometer:
One-billionth of a meter. Wavelengths of electromagnetic energy, which includes visible light, is measured in nanometers.
Newton’s Rings:
Irregularly shaped patterns, similar to oil on the surface of water, that appear in a color separation. They are caused by the varying amounts of air between the scanning cylinder and transparency surfaces as they come into contact. The light refracts into a rainbow pattern as it passes from the cylinder through the air pockets to the transparency. This is avoided by applying a coat of oil (to make airless contact) or a thin mist of powder (to prevent any contact) between the two surfaces.
Nonrepro Blue:
A light blue color often used to make crop marks or notes on mechanicals. Also called nonphoto blue.

O

Object-Oriented:
An approach in drawing and layout programs that treats graphics as line and arc segments rather than individual dots.
OCR (Optical Character Reader):
A device that allows a computer to read printed text and transform it into electronic text which can be saved into an electronic file.
Off-Press Proof:
A four-color proof generated before the production press run and before, or instead of, a press proof.
Offset Lithography:
A printing method that uses the repellent properties of oil and water to reproduce an image on a flat surface that contains both the image and non-printing areas. This printing process uses an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate.
Orphan:
Where the last line in a paragraph winds up isolated on top of the next text column or page.
Orthochromatic:
Photographic surfaces sensitive to ultraviolet, blue, green and yellow rays, but insensitive to red rays.
Out Of Register:
Two or more colors not exactly aligned when printed.
Outline:
A typeface in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined rather than from solid strokes.
Output Devices: 
Any device used to output digital files from a computer for viewing purposes; this can be in the form of printed products or displayed on a monitor for websites and presentations.
Output Profile: 
A profile for an output device such as a printer, proofing device or monitor. Not to be confused with a destination profile.
Output Resolution:
The dots per inch (DPI) of an output device.
Output:
Processed optical or electronic data transferred to another device such as a secondary storage unit, a laser printer, an electronic manipulation station, or an analog or digital proofing device.
Outserts:
This term includes onserts, polybag label carrier cards, or cover tips, which only cover one side (usually the cover) of the publication.
Overlay:
A tissue over the base keyline for writing corrections and instructions such as indicating color breaks.
Overprint:
To print over an area that has previously been printed on.

P

Packing:
Paper used to underlay the image or impression cylinder in letterpress or the plate or blanket in lithography to get the proper squeeze and pressure for printing.
Pagination:
The automated process of numbering pages consecutively.
Paint Program:
Graphics program that treats images as a collection of individual dots or picture elements (pixels) rather than as a collection of shapes (or objects).
Palette:
The collection of colors or shades available to a graphics system or program.
PDF:
Portable Document file. A proprietary format developed by Adobe Systems for the transfer of files across computer platforms.
Perceptual Rendering Intent:
A rendering intent that determines how a file’s color values will be remapped from the current color space into the target color space; in this case all colors are compressed so that out-of-gamut colors are brought into the target color space in such a way that maintains a distinction between the colors, and thus preserve the overall color appearance of the image.
Perfect Binding:
A binding method where the binding edge of a book or magazine is ground down about 1/8 in. and coated with a flexible adhesive. Then a flexible cover is attached creating a squared-off backbone.
Perfecting Press:
A press that prints on both sides of the paper during a single pass.
Perforations (Perfs):
A series of small dots or dashes made in paper that allows and controls the tearing of paper. Perfs are indicated on the marksheet by dashed lines.
Pica:
A typographic measurement. There are 12 points to a pica and approximately 6 picas to an inch.
Picking:
Removing emulsion on a negative so that light can pass through, creating an image.
PICT:
A standard data format in which most Macintosh illustrations are encoded. PICT data can be created, displayed on the screen, and printed by routines incorporated in the Macintosh system.
Pinholes:
Tiny areas that are not covered by ink.
Pixel Depth: 
The amount of data used to describe the color of each pixel in a digital photo or image. Monochrome is 1 bit deep; greyscale is 8 bits deep; RGB is 24 bits deep; images printed as CMYK are 32 bits deep.
Pixel:
Abbreviation for picture element, the smallest unit that can be sensed, manipulated, or output by a digital system or displayed on a computer screen.
Pixels Per Inch (PPI):
A measurement referring to the number of pixels in every linear inch of a digital image.
Plate Information:
A section of the job ticket that indicates the correct number and color plates needed for each job.
Plate Instructions:
A series of instructions pertaining to be used when exposing images on the plates to be used on press.
Plate:
Reproduction of type and images on metal, plastic, rubber or other material to form a printing surface.
PMS (Pantone Matching System):
A proprietary color system for choosing and matching specific spot colors. Almost all printers worldwide use this system for color matching. The Pantone Matching System provides designers with swatches for specific colors and gives printers the recipes for making those colors.
Point:
Unit of measurement commonly used for specific type sizes. There are 12 points in a pica and 72 points in an inch.
Porosity:
The open or closed characteristics of a paper’s surface that allows air to pass through and ink to penetrate. Generally, coated papers have very closed surfaces, low porosity and hold ink on the surface well. Some papers used for blow-in cards are porosity rated for bindery use.
Portrait:
An upright image or page where the height is greater than the width.
Position Proof:
A color proof that is made to verify that all the elements of the reproduction (text, graphics, and pictures) are in the correct position and are in register with each other.
Postscript Fonts:
A scalable font technology from Adobe that renders fonts for both the printer and the screen. PostScript fonts come in Type 1 and Type 3 formats. Type 1 fonts use a simple, efficient command language and are widely used. Type 3 fonts can use the entire PostScript language to create complex designs, and Type 3 fonts can also be bitmaps.
PostScript:
A page description language consisting of a specific set of software commands and protocols that are used when an electronic document is translated through a raster image processor. The key feature of PostScript is device independence, allowing different output devices from different manufacturers to print the same file in the same way in terms of its appearance and/or shape despite any differences in output capabilities between the two devices in question.
Pre-Flight:
A pre-press sub-division whose responsibility is to check files prior to production. This is done to assure that all material is correct and matches prep instruction sheets and pre-press information on the job ticket.
Premastering:
Creating a recorded file that contains the exact “image” or file layout of a CD-ROM, with error correction and timing information, ready for mastering.
Press Run:
1) The actual running of the press to print the job following make-ready 2) The number of printed pieces in an order.
Press Schedule:
An orderly list of jobs scheduled to run on each press which is updated at the beginning of each shift by Schmidt’s scheduling department.
Printer Font:
A file sent to the printer which instructs the PostScript interpreter how “to draw” the characters of the font. Printer fonts generally have matching screen fonts.
Printing:
Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as film, electronic memory, die or plate.
Process Colors:
The subtractive primaries: cyan, magenta and yellow that are used along with black in four-color process printing.
Profile Connection Space (PCS): 
The color space used as the intermediary for conversions from one color space (as defined by its profile) to another. In the ICC specification, the PCS is either CIE XYZ or LAB.
Profiling: 
The act of creating a profile by measuring the current state of the device, describing the color and tonal capabilities and behavior of a device. Sometimes known as characterization. Usually done after calibration of a device.
Proofing/Plating:
The pre-press sub-division that creates single and flat proofs, plates, and other materials from negatives.
Proportion Wheel/Scale:
Used to calculate the percentage that an original must be reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size.

Q

Quadratone: 
A black and white image printed with four screens of four colors, such as one or more blacks and different shades of gray, used to enrich the contrast between light and dark areas of image.

R

Ragged Left/Right:
Successive lines of type which are of unequal length and are aligned at the opposite hand column (e.g. rigged right is aligned on the left and ragged on the right).
Random Access Memory (RAM):
RAM temporarily “holds” programs and files while in use.
Raster Image Processor (RIP):
A device or program that translates the instructions for a page in a page description or graphics output language to the actual pattern of dots (bitmap) supplied to a printing display system (i.e. film or printing plate).
Record:
In a database, one complete entry consisting of one or more fields of data.
Reflective Art:
Originals such as photographs or illustrations which are on a reflective surface as opposed to transparent film.
Register (Registration):
To fit two or more printing images on the same paper in exact alignment with each other. The correct positioning of one color over another during the printing process. (a.k.a. fit)
Registration Marks:
Crosses or other targets applied to imaged document to ensure proper alignment of all color plates when printing on press.
Relative Colorimetric Rendering Intent:
A rendering intent that determines how a file’s color values will be remapped from the current color space into the target color space; in this case any color that is not outside of the target color space (usually that of an output device) is remapped to an exact match; however, out-of-gamut colors are moved to the nearest edge of the target color space, which means they will be clipped.
Rendering Intent:
Each device has a fixed range of color it can reproduce. The range of color a device can reproduce is called its color gamut. Colors that can be produced in the source color space but aren’t reproducible in the destination color space are called out-of-gamut colors. The ICC profile specification includes four different methods of handling out-of-gamut colors; these methods are called rendering intents. These four rendering intents are: Perceptual, Relative Colorimetric, Absolute Colorimetric, Saturation.
Repeatability:
The ability to keep photo film and the images thereon in proper register.
Resolution:
How resolution is defined in electronic imaging will depend upon what item is being referred to. Output devices, including presses, print with dots, so the resolution in their case is described as being dots per inch (DPI). On the other hand, digital images, whether obtained with a scanner or digital camera, are made up of pixels, so their resolution would be defined as being pixels per inch (PPI). Monitor resolution is also defined as pixels per inch (PPI) due to its display of electronic files in pixels. Scanner resolution is referred to as samples per inch (SPI) due to a scanner’s method for digitizing reflective art and/or transparencies, which is to sample the original at a particular frequency – a higher sample rate (like 300 SPI) means a higher scanning resolution than 150 SPI, which is only half that of 300 SPI. The higher the sample rate (samples per inch), the more closely the scan will represent the original’s appearance due to it having more samples from which to construct its representation of the original.
Reverse:
Type or graphic that appears as white on a black or dark colored background.
RGB:
Acronym for Red-Green-Blue, the primary colors of the additive color model, which describes how monitors and RGB digital images represent color by blending these three primary colors together. When all three are combined over each other the color of light is white.
Rosette Pattern:
The pattern created when all four CMYK color halftone screens are printed at traditional angles, shown to produce the best results in printed color output. The rosette pattern is noticeable only under magnification.
Rule:
A straight line of any thickness or a line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
Run Around:
Type that wraps around a picture or art. Also known as Text Wrap.
Run:
A group products (versions) that are printed together. There may be more than one run per press ticket.

S

Saddle Stitching:
A binding method for pamphlets, folders, leaflets and magazines where the signature is opened and stitched (stapled) at the center fold of the signature.
Sample:
A printed piece of the finished product.
Sans Serif:
A typeface that has no serifs, small strokes at the end of the main stroke of the character. Times Roman is a serif typeface, helvetica is sans serif.
Saturation Rendering Intent:
A rendering intent that determines how a file’s color values will be remapped from the current color space into the target color space; in this case all colors are simply remapped to produce a vivid color appearance without regard to color accuracy to the original image. It accomplishes this by converting saturated colors in the current color space to saturated colors in the target color space.
Saturation:
One of the three attributes of color, saturation is the intensity of a hue at a given lightness. The closer a color is to neutral gray or white, the less saturated the color. The farther away it is, the more saturated it is. The other attributes of color are hue and brightness.
SBS or SXS:
Side-by-side card pack abbreviations.
Scaling:
Determining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged to fit an area.
Scanner:
A device used to convert reflective art and/or transparencies into an  electronic file composed of pixels in order to be read and manipulated within graphics applications on the computer.
Score:
To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately.
Screen Angle:
Angles at which screens are placed with relation to one another to avoid undesirable moiré patterns. The most common angles are black, 45 degrees, magenta 75 degrees, yellow 90 degrees, and cyan 105 degrees.
Screen Build:
An approximation of a spot color created by combining and printing screened process colors. Cannot duplicate the spot color exactly due to process colors being different in their makeup; sometimes it’s not possible to even get close to the color appearance of the spot color due to the limitations of the CMYK color gamut.
Screen Density:
Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called a screen percentage.
Screen Font:
A data file used by a computer to create an on-screen representation of the font(s) used in the electronic file. The screen font stores character information for style, hyphenation and justification.
Screen Frequency:
The number of halftone cells per unit of measurement in a screen; the higher the frequency, the finer the screen. A screen of 150 lines per inch (LPI) is made up of dots that are one-third the size of the dots in a screen of 75 lines per inch.
Screen Ruling:
The number of rows or lines of dots per inch in a screen for making a screen tint or halftone.
Screen Tint:
A tint of an ink color, specified as a percentage of the ink color.
Self Cover:
Publications format where the cover stock is the same weight as the text stock. Self-covers are commonly used for booklets and similar small publications.
Serif:
A small cross stroke at the end of the main stroke of the letter; Times Roman is a serif font style.
Shadow:
The darkest area of an image or photograph; represented by the largest dots in a halftone.
Sheet-fed Press:
A printing press that uses sheets of paper, rather than a continuous paper roll or web.
Side Stitching:
A binding method where two or three staples are passed through signatures, usually on the left side of the book.
Signature:
Printed sheets folded to become part of a publication. Signatures always contain pages in increments of four, such as 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 or 32 pages.
Silhouette:
Eliminating the background from behind an object in a photograph or piece of art.
Slide Scanner:
A scanner that can only utilize transmission or transparent images, not reflective or opaque images.
Slur:
An undesirable printing condition where the printed image is smeared.
Small Caps:
An alphabet of SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS available in most type faces, approximately the size of the lower case letters; usually used in combination with larger capital letters.
Soft Dot:
A halftone dot that does not have uniform density over its entire surface and may also have a soft fringe, commonly produced by digital image-setters. This is an important area for calibration and quality-control checks since small variances in dot size can create dramatic changes in color reproduction.
Solid:
Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage.
Source Profile: 
One of the two types of profiles required for converting an image or document from one color space to another. The source profile communicates to the color management system the color meaning of the specific color values in the image or document. The source profile may already be embedded in the document, applied by the user (via assigning or converting), or supplied by a default setting (via assuming) in the application.
Specifications Web Offset Publications (SWOP):
SWOP specifies film densities, screen rulings, reverses, surprinted type, proofing, color bars, and proofing stock. The purpose of SWOP is to encourage uniform communication among those involved in the production workflow to promote quality color in web offset publications.
Spine Trim:
Area on the binding edge of an insert that will be ground off during perfect binding.
Split Plates:
Running the same color on the same side of a press sheet on two separate units to provide image beyond normal image limits.
Split Run:
Different images, such as advertisements, printed or bound in different editions of a publication. Also, two or more binding methods used on the same print run.
Spot Color:
A specially mixed ink which creates a specific color to be printed on press. Spot color inks are opaque, not translucent like process color inks. Requires only one plate to print the color versus four when printing with process colors.
Spot Varnish:
Press varnish applied to a portion of the sheet as opposed to an overall application of the varnish.
Spreads:
Used to provide a printing overlap between a color-tinted background to outline letters. The image remains the same except for a narrow increase around its perimeter.
Step-and-Repeat:
The procedure of exposing a digital file repeatedly in different places on the printing plate.
Stochastic Screening:
An alternative to conventional halftone screening that creates tonal graduations by placing same-size microdots (typically 12 to 30 microns) in a computer-controlled, random order within a given area. The computer uses frequency modulation to vary the number and placement of same-sized dots. The random dot pattern eliminates many moiré problems and allows more than four colors to represent the tones in an image.
Style Sheet:
A collection of tags specifying page layout styles, paragraph settings and type specifications which can be set up by the user and saved for use in other documents.
Subscript:
Small characters set below normal letters or figures.
Substrate:
A base upon which something is applied in printing this is paper.
Subtractive Color Model:
Refers to the three primary process printing inks; cyan, magenta, and yellow (opposed to their corresponding opposites, being the three additive primary colors of red, green, and blue). They are called “subtractive” because their way of producing color involves the subtraction of color light waves. Cyan ink acts as a filter to absorb red light waves; magenta ink absorbs green light; and yellow absorbs blue light. Usually black is also used to create deeper blacks and shadow tones.
Superscript:
Small characters set above normal letters or figures.
Swatch:
A color sample.

T

Tack:
The stickiness of an ink. Tack is the relative measurement of the cohesion of an ink representing its resistance to splitting between two rapidly separating surfaces.
Tagged Files: 
A file that has a profile attached to it.
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF): 
 TIFF is a flexible bitmap image format supported by virtually all graphic editing and page layout applications. It is typically used for formatting the resulting files of scanned images such as photographs, illustrations and logos due to its capability to enable files to be exchanged between applications and computer platforms. The TIFF format supports CMYK, RGB, and grayscale files with alpha channels, and Lab, indexed-color, and bitmap files without alpha channels.
Tape Backup:
File storage and transfer medium used for protecting and transferring files.
Template:
A standard layout usually containing basic details of the page dimensions.
Text Stock:
Paper stock used for the pages of reports and books. Text stock is described by pound weight determined by the weight of 500 25 X 38 inch sheets. For example, 500 sheets of 80-lb. text stock cut 25 X 38 inches weighs 80 pounds (standard US text pound).
Thumbnails:
The first ideas or sketches of a designer noted down for future reference.
Tint:
A solid color reduced either by screening or by adding white ink.
Tone Compression:
Reduction of the original tonal range in an image to a tonal range that is achievable through the reproduction process.
Touch Plate:
An additional printing plate that adds a matched color to a process.
Transpose:
To exchange the position of a letter, word, or line with another letter, word, or line.
Trap:
1) In printing, the ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. 2) In pre-press, trap refers to the amount of overlap needed to eliminate white lines between colors.
Trapping:
1) A technique in which abutting colors are slightly overlapped to minimize the effects of misaligned registration of printing plates. 2) On a press, the way various colors of ink adhere to one another when wet versus the way one layer of ink adheres to the paper.
Trim Marks:
Marks that indicate where a piece is to be cut.
Trim Size :
The final size of a book after binding and trimming.
Trim:
To cut the excess paper from the edges of a press sheet. In proofing to cut down a proof to a specific size.
Tritone:
A black and white image printed with three screens of three colors, such as blacks plus two spot colors; used to add depth and expand the contrast between light and dark areas of image.
TrueType Fonts:
A registered trademark for an outline font format with built-in screen and printer fonts.
Type Face:
A style or design of type encompassing shape, weight and proportions that make it distinct from other type faces.
Type Family:
All sizes and weights of basic type design; members may vary in weight, width, or other treatment. For example, a family may include roman, italic, extended and boldface treatments of a type face. (Also called font family.)
Typesetting:
The process of setting material in type or into a form to be used in printing.

U

ULC:
Upper Left Corner
Uncoated Paper:
Paper that has not had a final coating applied for smoothness. Uncoated paper is absorbent and soft in appearance.
Under Color Removal (UCR):
Reducing the cyan, magenta, and yellow inks independently within the darkest neutral shadow areas in an image reproduction and replacing them with a controlled amount of black to reduce the total tonal density. The three colors are reduced so the shadows have better detail, improved trapping, and more consistent reproduction.
Unjustified:
Type set with lines of unequal length. The most common kind of unjustified text is aligned at the left and unaligned on the right, also referred to as ragged right.
Unsharp Masking:
A function of image editing software that increases the overall contrast at the edges of tonal or color changes by exaggerating the differences. In the scanner or color manipulation work-station, the computer reads the digital signals to locate where the color changes occur and then adjusts the tones and colors to create a more sudden change. If carried to an extreme, the exaggeration can result in an outline effect between some colors.
Untagged Files: 
Files that don’t have a profile attached to them.
-Up:
In printing, two-up, three-up, etc. refers to imposition of material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press capacity.
Upper Case:
The capital letters in any font of type.
URC:
Upper Right Corner

V

Varnish:
A clear, liquid, resinous coating, either matte or glossy, that is applied to a printed product for protection and appearance.
Vector:
A mathematically described object or path used to create images in drawing programs (or any program that includes drawing  tools in its list of capabilities).
Vertical Justification:
The ability to adjust the spacing (leading) between lines and manipulation of text in fine increments to make columns and pages end at the same point on a page.
Vignette:
Color manipulation effects in which all or a portion of an image fades gradually away until it blends into the non-imaged area. Sometimes used to refer to a graduated background tone.
Viscosity:
Thickness or thinness of a fluid as measured by its resistance to flow. Ink viscosity is adjusted to maintain a proper flow through the ink train of a press and on to the paper.
Visible Spectrum:
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which the human eye can detect. Wavelengths within the visible spectrum range from approximately 400 through 700 nanometers. Due to how the human visible system works, we perceive the longer waves to be red, the shorter waves to blue, and the waves in-between to be green. Our perception of full color comes from combining these wavelengths at various strengths.

W

Washup:
The process of cleaning the printing press between ink changes.
Web Press:
A printing press that prints on paper from a continuous roll.
Web:
A roll of paper used in web or rotary printing.
Widow:
Where the last line in a paragraph consists of only seven or less characters.
Word Spacing:
Word spacing in typography is the process of increasing or decreasing the space between words. Typographers may modify the default spacing of a letter in a body of type to aid readability and copy fit or for aesthetic effect, but this does not alter word spacing alone, and is rarely done.
Work and Turn:
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from left to right and print the second side. The same gripper and plate are used for printing both sides.
WYSIWYG:
Pronounced “wizzy-wig”, stands for “What You See Is What You Get”, an expression characterizing page processing and typesetting programs or systems that show on a screen what you will get as the output from a printer or imagesetter.

X

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Y

Y:
Abbreviation for yellow in four-color process printing.
Yellow (Y):
One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process color printing.

Z

No Items Were Found